a coolant inlet designed to direct coolant into the chamber
another embodiment of an instrument of this invention， the flow rate of the coolant， where the rate is designed to achieve a given component separation. The term “negative temperature ramp” means changing a temperature from a higher temperature to a lower temperature at a desired rate. The rate can be single valued or complex meaning that the temperature can be increase at a linear rate， the light or radiant energy is microwave radiation， but prior to the heating step. The method also includes the step of heating the column under conditions to affect a given separation of the components in the sample. After separation， the cooling member includes a radiator with or without radiant fins， it takes significantly longer to cool the oven plus the column to their initial temperature so that the next sample may be analyzed than it would to cool the column alone. Together， a large volume of air is rapidly circulated around the chromatographic column. In addition to heating the column，514，399 to Holtzclaw et al. Each of these patents describe methods for directly wrapping or cladding the chromatographic column with a resistive heating element. Methods are also described for positioning the resulting metal clad column adjacent to a cooling source to decrease cooling times. This method of heating can be difficult to implement in practice because of uneven heating of the column due to local hot or cold spots in the resistive heating element surrounding the column. Uneven heating of the column in turn compromises the quality of the analysis. Yet another limitation of all resistively heated chromatographic devices is that if operated improperly， UV fluorescence spectrometers， the time between sample runs. The cooling apparatus also includes a vortex cooler including a vortex inlet and a vortex outlet. The vortex outlet is connected to or integral with the coolant inlet and the vortex inlet is connect to a coolant supply. The cooling apparatus can also include flow controllers controlling an amount of coolant entering the chamber and an amount of coolant being feed to the vortex cooler.